Code modernization can create some interesting problems these days as business and government attempt to upgrade legacy systems. The route ahead is not always clear. Legacy systems may be in a variety of different languages installed for different purposes to meet the needs of the time. Even the transformation target itself can be problematic. Whether code is better translated into Java, a C variant, Python or something else demands consideration of the environment in which the code will reside, its interconnections, as well as the characteristics of the output language and its suitability. Economics rises as an important issue with older or obscure languages that do not have a breadth of available talent.